Practice Final Exam, MGT 323, The Catholic University of America


Final exam review for MGT 323, from the test, class notes and outside sources.

This is only a review of possible questions that were included on past exams.

Printable document here.MGT 323 final exam review.doc

Management in one word

Management in a short sentence

The four functions of management

Why is a team leader or a first line supervisor position so difficult?



Frederick Taylor

Frank Gilbreth

Benefits of Bureaucracies

Contingency Management

Time and Motion Studies



Uncertainty in Business/management

Supplier Dependence

Public communications

Life lie – Business Lie


Group Think

Brainstorming list one Rule

Competitive Advantage


Purpose of Business

Manager’s Formula

Staff’s Formula






Chain of command






Core vs Critical Functions

The customer is NOT always right. But the customer must always be___________.

In your job search, what does PASS stand for?

In a job interview, or business case study, what does PSR stand for?

What is the first law in dealing with Bureaucrats?

What is HRM?

In HRM, what are KSA’s?

Does your manager have to buy your ideas? Why or Why not?

In selling, what does PAM stand for?

According to President John Adams, “I [the manager] must control events or events ______ _________ ___.”

Cross Functional team

Virtual Team


Stages of Team development

Name three of the top ten problems reported by team leaders


Recruiting, internal; external

What are three questions not to ask in an interview of applicants?

360 degree feedback


Employee turnover


_______________ + _______________________ = Motivation

Equity theory

Goal setting theory





Formal communication channel





Feedback control

Nordstrom Rule #1

What suffers when only costs are controlled?

Cash flow analysis

What are three measures of quality?

Moore’s Law

Communication cost

Data cluster


Where does knowledge reside?

Productivity = _________________ divided by ____________________.

ISO 9000

Baldrige National Quality Award

Manufacturing flexibility



________ is the number of nonstandard parts per million when a company reaches Six Sigma.

Short answer 1 point each 5 points (10 extra points possible) please write about your personal experience

What is the hardest management job?

Why would a manager micro-manage a staffer?

Who is the most important person in a staffer’s life and why?

How does a staffer get promoted?

In business, what is a monkey and why is the analogy important?

1. ____ is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force.

a. Functional resource planning

b. Human resource management

c. Work force forecasting

d. Recruiting

e. Human resource implementation

2. Which of the following statements about federal employment law is true?

a. This body of law has not changed during the last two decades.

b. The intent of anti-discrimination law is to make factors such as gender, race, or age irrelevant in employment decisions.

c. Federal law prohibits the use of gender, race, and age as the basis for employment decisions under all circumstances.

d. All federal laws are administered by the Department of Labor.

e. Federal employment laws do not deal with training and development activities.

3. To which of the following aspects of the human resource management process does federal employment law apply?

a. selection decisions

b. compensation decisions

c. performance appraisals

d. training and development activities

e. all of these

4. The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of ____.

a. the four-fifths rule

b. adverse impact rulings

c. bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)

d. gender selectivity

e. benefits and features for occupational quality (BFOQs)

1. Diversity ____.

a. exists in all organizations

b. is used to create affirmative action

c. is federally mandated

d. can exist in an organization’s employees and its customers

e. is accurately described by all of these

2. A modem factory owned by 3Com in Morton Grove, Illinois, has 1,200 workers who speak 20 different languages. This factory illustrates ____.

a. Acculturation

b. Diversity

c. affirmative action

d. cultural organization

e. organizational plurality

3. In order to achieve diversity, organizations must have variety among their employees and their ____.

a. regulatory agencies’ inspectors

b. Customers

c. external environments

d. shareholders/investors

e. all of these

1. According to the text, ____ is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.

a. Attitude

b. self-management

c. Persistence

d. Motivation

e. Compliance

2. The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.

a. Compliance

b. self-management

c. Motivation

d. Performance

e. Efficiency

3. According to some industrial psychologists, ____ is a function of motivation times ability times situational constraints.

a. leadership skill

b. Creativity

c. job performance

d. performance valence

e. Compliance

4. According to some industrial psychologists, job performance is a(n) ____ function of motivation, ability, and situational constraints.

a. Circular

b. Multiplicative

c. Nonlinear

d. Additive

e. Corollary

5. Asa and Ruby both sell insurance. Asa is married, has three children, and a new house. Ruby is single and has recently purchased a new Lexus. According to some industrial psychologists ____.

a. they will be motivated by the same needs

b. Asa can be motivated through need, and Ruby cannot

c. Ruby has no needs

d. how well their employer motivates them relates directly to their individual needs

e. none of these is true

6. A sales manager has carefully selected the members of two sales teams so that they have, as nearly as possible, identical skills and abilities. Both are assigned potential customers in the same industry. Both groups are offered the same rewards. One team makes the sale, and the other does not. This information tells you that ____.

a. performance and motivation are unrelated

b. the concept of synergy is faulty

c. one of the components that leads to job performance was weak

d. nothing motivates some people

e. all of these are true

1. Effective managers define ____ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.

a. Management

b. Leadership

c. interpersonal influence

d. Supervision

e. Autonomy

2. Which of the following is a major concern of managers (as opposed to leaders)?

a. maintaining the status quo

b. inspiring and motivating others

c. taking a long-term view

d. promoting change

e. organizational improvements

3. One of the criticisms of the television industry is the networks’ desire to maintain ratings by thinking in terms of next week’s programming. The networks are also more concerned with how to get high program ratings quickly than achieving the ratings through giving viewers time to become acquainted with high-quality programs. Problem solving in terms of show placement or guest stars seems to be more important than inspiring great television innovations. This criticism assumes ____.

a. doing the right things is more important than doing things right in the television industry

b. the television industry benefits from strong leadership

c. long-term strategy is more important than tactics in the television industry

d. the television industry has a shortage of effective leadership

e. the television industry attracts more architects than builders

4. Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?

a. controlling and limiting the choices of others

b. solving problems so that work can be done

c. preserving the status quo

d. inspiring and motivating others

e. a focus on productivity and efficiency

5. Ford Motor Company has always attracted and nurtured capable managers, but it has failed to do the same for leaders. So, as part of an overhaul of the automaker’s organizational culture, Ford is embarking on a sweeping attempt to mass-manufacture leaders. It wants to build an army of “warrior-entrepreneurs.” Ford’s “warrior-entrepreneurs” will be expected to ____.

a. take a long-term perspective

b. inspire and motivate employees to embrace change

c. realize that results are more important than processes

d. be architects rather than builders

e. do all of these things

6. Airline companies have blamed their recent financial problems on labor unions, the events of September 11, and a weak economy. Those airlines in financial difficulties have tried to solve the problem through short-term price reductions, firings and early retirements, and asking for employees to take pay cuts. The CEOs of these companies have not tried to motivate employees to create long-term solutions to the problems facing the companies. The CEOs of these troubled companies ____.

a. are true leaders

b. are more interested in doing the right thing than doing things right

c. are promoting long-term change

d. tend to focus on organizational visions, missions, goals, and objectives rather than organizational efficiency and productivity

e. are more than likely managers rather than leaders

7. When Jack Welch went to work for General Electric, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company’s structure and product lines. He envisioned a bloated, inefficient General Electric becoming an efficient, profitable organization over time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ____.

a. would be characterized as a leader

b. had a short-term perspective

c. emphasized means rather than ends

d. acted as a builder rather than an architect

e. would be characterized as a manager

1. Which of the following statements about the importance of communication is true?

a. Many of the basic management processes cannot be performed without effective communication.

b. Oral communication is the most important skill for college graduates who are entering the work force.

c. Poor communication skill is the single most important reason that people do not advance in their careers.

d. Communication is especially important for top managers.

e. All of these statements about the importance of communication are true.

2. The last step in the perceptual process is ____.

a. Interpretation

b. Retention

c. Attention

d. Organization

e. Action

3. In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli.

a. Retention

b. Organization

c. Interpretation

d. Attention

e. Activation

4. In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of remembering interpreted information.

a. Apprehension

b. Organization

c. Interpretation

d. Retention

e. Activation

5. Which of the following statements about perception and perceptual filters is true?

a. People pay attention to similar things.

b. People organize and interpret what they pay attention to similarly.

c. People remember things similarly.

d. People are unaffected by differences in stimuli.

e. People perceive according to personality-, psychology-, and experience-based filters.

6. ____ is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.

a. Active hearing

b. Passive listening

c. Perception

d. Apprehension

e. Participative communication

7. Because of ____, people exposed to the same information will often disagree about what they saw or heard.

a. defensive biases

b. feedback variables

c. differences in communication media

d. perceptual filters

e. communications deviations

8. Perceptual filters may occur as the result of ____.

a. stimulus-based differences

b. physiology-based differences

c. situation-contextual differences

d. personality-based differences

e. all of these

9. The steps in the basic perception process include all of the following EXCEPT ____.

a. attention

b. organization

c. analysis

d. interpretation

e. retention

10. The steps in the perceptual process in order are ____.

a. interpretation, attention, organization, action

b. organization, attention, interpretation, retention

c. attention, organization, interpretation, retention

d. attention, interpretation, organization, retention

e. attention, decision, intention, and action

1. The basic control process begins with ____.

a. either benchmarking or keystoning

b. the establishment of clear standards of performance

c. the comparison of actual performance to expected performance

d. problem identification

e. determining what corrective action will be if actual performance does not equal or exceed expected performance

2. ____ is the regulatory process of establishing standards that will achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and then, if necessary, taking corrective action to restore performance to those standards.

a. Implementation

b. Goal-setting

c. Control

d. Suboptimization

e. Benchmarking

3. ____ are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

a. Standards

b. Potentials

c. Autonomous goals

d. Degrees of centralization

e. Resource goals

4. The objective of the company that manufactures Jägermeister liqueur is to grow its international business. It determined its success in the international market in 2005 by comparing its annual exporting data for that year with the data gathered in 1998, the first year it had double digit growth in exports. For this company, the 1998 exporting data provide a(n) ____.

a. autonomous measurement

b. standard

c. value ratio

d. dependence measurement

e. performance predictor

5. In October 2005, Cadbury Schweppes said higher commodity prices and the bankruptcy of one of its U.S. bottling plants had increased its production costs and led it to scale back its financial projections for the remainder of the year. These financial projections were ____ for the beverage company.

a. autonomous measurements

b. standards

c. value ratios

d. dependence measurements

e. performance charts

6. Companies may determine standards by ____.

a. benchmarking other companies

b. implementing vertical loading

c. using outsourcing

d. taking corrective action

e. doing all of these

7. Ford Motor Company has been attacked by its own sustainability committee for failing to do enough to cut vehicular greenhouse gas emissions. According to the committee’s 2005 report, “Ford has failed to define a goal for reducing global emissions from the company’s products.” The report called for the company to set clear targets to improve fuel economy and to cut factory emissions. This committee wants Ford to establish emission control ____.

a. autonomous measurements

b. standards

c. value ratios

d. dependence measurements

e. performance predictors

8. ____ allows a trucking company not only to compare its safety performance with other companies but to also adopt those practices found to be superior. A trucking company can gather data on how its competitors deal with total accidents per million miles, numbers of high severity accidents by type, missed deliveries, spills, driver out-of-service by type, and vehicle out-of-service by type and use this information to improve its own safety record.

a. Benchmarking

b. Data decentralization

c. Information processing

d. Mirroring

e. Comparative criterion

9. When Marriott decided to improve the quality of service it offered its customers, it asked special corporate guests to comment on the good and bad issues of their stay and also to tell what the competition is doing that is better than Marriott. The Marriott acted accordingly. In other words, it used ____.

a. benchmarking

b. data decentralization

c. information processing

d. mirroring

e. comparative criterion

1. According to ____, the cost of computing will drop by 50 percent as computer-processing power doubles every 18 months.

a. Moore’s law

b. Gordon’s law

c. the Peter principle

d. the rule of e-commerce

e. Gresham’s Law

2. The term ____ refers to facts and figures depicted in a manner that is not usable.

a. nonspecific information

b. processed data

c. raw data

d. perceived knowledge

e. relevant information

3. The first company to use new information technology to substantially lower costs or differentiate products or services often gains ____.

a. first-mover advantage

b. lower profits

c. less market adaptability

d. increased synergy

e. all of these

4. According to the text, ____ is derived from ____.

a. information; raw data

b. raw data; perceived knowledge

c. perceived knowledge; raw data

d. raw data; information

e. influential knowledge; perceived knowledge

5. Pages listing all of the felony crimes perpetrated in New York during the last decade would be an example of ____.

a. a resource allocation table

b. traditional knowledge

c. raw data

d. perceived knowledge

e. information

6. Why is information strategically important for organizations?

a. Information can be used to obtain first-mover advantage.

b. Information is derived from perceived knowledge, which limits its availability.

c. Information cannot be used as a medium of exchange.

d. Information creates suboptimization opportunities.

e. All of these are examples of why information is strategically important for organizations.

7. A table showing the order frequencies as well as the average dollar value of the orders of different segments of a catalog retailer’s market would be an example of ____.

a. an MIS

b. perceived knowledge

c. raw data

d. information

e. influential knowledge

8. In 1921, realtor Billy Ingram closed his real estate company and opened White Castle restaurants to sell hamburgers. In 1921, hamburgers were thought to be made from rotten beef and not fit for human consumption. Ingram ground fresh beef in front of customers to prove it was safe and was the first to successfully sell hamburgers to the middle class. Today Ingram is credited as the founder of the fast-food industry. Understanding that Midwesterners wanted clean, convenient food when they were away from home was the information Ingram used to ____.

a. acquire a source of perceived knowledge

b. create a tactical advantage

c. create a first-mover advantage

d. pioneer sales in the consumer food industry

e. sustain a competitive advantage

9. Which of the following is one of the critical issues companies need to address in order to sustain a competitive advantage through information technology?

a. Who will have access to the information technology?

b. Will the purchase of the information technology be viewed as an expense or as an investment?

c. Does the firm’s use of the information technology violate any ethical standards?

d. Is the firm’s use of information technology difficult for another company to create or buy?

e. What government regulations may influence the company’s use of information technology?

10. The key to sustaining competitive advantage is ____.

a. faster computers with more memory

b. using information technology to continuously improve and support the core functions of a business

c. the Internet

d. the ability of the managers to delegate

e. how important the company’s culture perceives conceptual skills

11. In 1921, realtor Billy Ingram closed his real estate company and opened White Castle restaurants to sell hamburgers. In 1921, hamburgers were thought to be made from rotten beef and not fit for human consumption. Ingram ground fresh beef in front of customers to prove it was safe and was the first to successfully sell hamburgers to the middle class. Today Ingram is credited as the founder of the fast-food industry. Yet, today White Castle has 330 locations, and McDonald’s has 25,000 stores. From this information, you know ____.

a. tactics are more influential than strategies

b. the competitive advantage White Castle achieved from being first was not sustainable

c. White Castle lost its pioneering differential

d. product diffusion rates were slow

e. none of these

1. ____ is a measure of performance that indicates how many inputs it takes to produce or create an output.

a. Reliability

b. Performance accountability

c. Productivity

d. TQM

e. Effectiveness

2. At their core, companies are ____ systems that combine inputs such as labor, raw materials, capital, and knowledge to produce finished products and other types of output.

a. organizational

b. production

c. social

d. predictable

e. sociocultural

3. Which of the following shows the correct relationship for productivity, outputs, and inputs?

a. productivity = (inputs/outputs)

b. productivity = [(inputs ? outputs)/100]

c. outputs = (productivity/inputs)

d. productivity = (outputs/inputs)

e. inputs = (productivity/outputs)

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: 327

TOP: AACSB Analytic KEY: Operations Management

4. Which of the following statements about productivity is true?

a. Productivity is a ratio of benefits to costs (i.e., benefits divided by costs).

b. For companies, higher productivity can lead to lower costs.

c. For countries, higher productivity produces a lower standard of living.

d. Productivity decreases make products more affordable.

e. All of the statements about productivity are true.

5. Why is productivity important to countries?

a. Productivity matters because it produces a higher standard of living.

b. Greater productivity results in lower wages.

c. Productivity increases supply and reduces demand for products.

d. Productivity reduces taxation.

e. None of these statements explains why productivity is important to countries.


6. ____ productivity is a measure of performance that indicates how much of a particular kind of input it takes to produce an output.

a. Breakdown

b. Segregated

c. Unifactor

d. Partial

e. Fractional

7. The CEO of a company that manufactures maple wooden cutting boards has determined that it takes a piece of maple lumber 18 inches square and two inches thick, 2 hours of labor, a planer, a sander, an electric saw, and $5.67 to make one maple cutting board. The CEO has determined the ____ productivity of his company so he can compare its operation with that of its competition.

a. Integrated

b. Multifactor

c. Segregated

d. Functional

e. Breakdown

8. ____ productivity shows how much labor, capital, materials, and energy it takes to create an output.

a. Temporal

b. Multifactor

c. Functional

d. Continuous

e. Quantitative

9. If the manager of a company that manufactures signs was interested in how much glass tubing was needed to produce a Las Vegas casino neon sign, the manager would be interested in ____ productivity.

a. Composite

b. Multifactor

c. Partial

d. Breakdown

e. Fractional

10. In general, managers should use ____ to directly compare their overall level of productivity to that of their competitors, and ____ to analyze the contributions of individual components to that overall productivity.

a. efficiency measures; a productivity analysis

b. partial productivity; multifactor productivity

c. integrated productivity; segregated productivity

d. fragmented productivity; complete productivity

e. multifactor productivity; partial productivity

11. The American Society for Quality defines quality as ____.

a. a product free of deficiencies, or the characteristics of a product or service that satisfy customers’ needs

b. a product that customers perceive as free of deficiencies

c. any product made from error-free components

d. a product produced according to a sacrificing design plan

e. none of these


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